Read about the critical difference between the components of nuclear EMP.

Visit this very important page on common EMP Myths which cause an enormous amount of confusion.  If you read any page on this web site, be sure to read this page as well.

Note these additional details about EMP effects on motor vehicles.

Go here for notes and technical references on Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (and on solar storms).

An introduction to solar storms (and a correction of some common myths and misuse of words used to describe space weather).  The author of the site said, "The current version of this page is only an initial draft; and I intend to complete it later in November."

Here is another short page on non-nuclear EMP generation.

MIL-STD-188-125-1  High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection for Ground-based Facilities Performing Critical, Time-Urgent Missions  (U.S. Department of Defense Document)

Read: the EMP personal protection page.

Visit this comprehensive and well-referenced page at this site with extensive details about the 1962 Soviet nuclear EMP tests over Kazakhstan, which resulted in extensive damage to the electrical and communications infrastructure.

REad about the Operation Fishbowl series of high-altitude nuclear tests by the United States in 1962 over the mid-Pacific.  This article includes extensive references.

Read about General EMP History, including details on the balloon-launched Hardtack-Yucca nuclear test.  A link to the video of the helium-balloon-launched nuclear weapon is included.  (A regional EMP attack could be launched today with a large helium balloon, although it would probably be launched at night.  There is a separate page about the possibility of Balloon-Launched EMP Attacks.)

Standby Generators for EMP.

Super-EMP Weapons and why nuclear weapons of the past were actually suppressed-EMP weapons.

NBC (Nuclear-Biological-Chemical) Report Fall/Winter, 2004  is a complete online issue containing the article  Fifty-Odd Years of EMP  by Conrad Longmire (who first accurately identified the causes of high-altitude EMP)

Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction Journal, Issue 3, January, 2009  is the complete online issue containing the article  A Russian Assessment of Several USSR and US HEMP Tests

U.S. Department of Energy Large Power Transformer Study, June 2012  is an update on the situation regarding large power transformers in the U.S. electrical grid.

The Effects of High Altitude Explosions  by Wilmot N. Hess, published by NASA in 1964 is a reference document only).

Did High-Altitude EMP Cause the Hawaiian Streetlight Incident?  ...written by Charles N. Vittitoe, an engineering analysis published by Sandia National Laboratories.  (This is a higher-quality copy than what is available from the Summa Foundation at the University of New Mexico.)

A short article containing all that I am willing to say about human EMF sensitivity, but this article may be very useful to some individuals.

Note:  Two new EMP pages are in the planning stages for this site.  One will cover the subject of the EMP caused by low-altitude nuclear explosions.  The other (which will probably not come until much later) will cover a somewhat more detailed explanation of transformer damage due to geomagnetic storms and nuclear E3 effects.

The government reports in PDF format may require the authentic version of Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.  The Adobe Reader is available for free download from the Adobe web site.   Open source PDF readers, such as the one available in the Firefox web browser, may not work.

In September 2010, Oak Ridge National Laboratory published a series of reports for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy and the Department of Homeland Security on the effects of electromagnetic disturbances on the United States electric power grid.   The reports were written by the Metatech Corporation, and they provide an updated and comprehensive view of how electromagnetic disturbances such as nuclear EMP are likely to affect the United States electrical power grid.

Many people will only be interested in the Executive Summary.   Some of the other reports are hundreds of pages long.

Meta-R-319:  Geomagnetic Storms and Their Impacts on the U.S. Power Grid  by John Kappenman

Meta-R-320:  The Early-Time (E1) High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and Its Impact on the U.S. Power Grid  by Edward Savage, James Gilbert and William Radasky

Meta-R-321:  The Late-Time (E3) High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and Its Impact on the U.S. Power Grid  by James Gilbert, John Kappenman, William Radasky and Edward Savage

Meta-R-322:  Low-Frequency Protection Concepts for the Electric Power Grid: Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC) and E3 HEMP Mitigation  by John Kappenman

Meta-R-323:  Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) and Its Impact on the U.S. Power Grid  by William Radasky and Edward Savage

Meta-R-324:  High-Frequency Protection Concepts for the Electric Power Grid  by William Radasky and Edward Savage